In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world. Pollution started from prehistoric times when the environmental case layzer pdf created the first fires.
The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution. 1272, after its smoke became a problem. But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded view ability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem.
Reformers began to demand sewer systems, and clean water. In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell. There were no public toilets in the streets or squares. Visitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive.
As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870. The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies but to forge Berlin as the world’s model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented “the most complete application of science, order and method of public life,” adding “it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as “miracles of cleanliness.
By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing.
1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people. Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Russia, is considered the “Most polluted place on the planet”.