Due to their special structure and the materials in solar cells, the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. The photon can reflect off the surface. This generates an electron-hole pair and sometimes heat depending on valence bond theory and its limitations pdf band structure.
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When a photon is absorbed, its energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice. The network of covalent bonds that the electron was previously a part of now has one fewer electron. This is known as a hole. The presence of a missing covalent bond allows the bonded electrons of neighboring atoms to move into the “hole,” leaving another hole behind, thus propagating holes throughout the lattice. It can be said that photons absorbed in the semiconductor create electron-hole pairs. A photon only needs to have energy greater than that of the band gap in order to excite an electron from the valence band into the conduction band.
However, high optical intensities are required for this nonlinear process. The most commonly known solar cell is configured as a large-area p-n junction made from silicon. As a simplification, one can imagine bringing a layer of n-type silicon into direct contact with a layer of p-type silicon. When the electrons diffuse across the p-n junction, they recombine with holes on the p-type side. These two “forces” may work one against the other at any given point in the cell. The same goes for a hole moving in the opposite direction.